Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish. BASF developed the Amflora potato, which was modified to express antisense RNA to inactivate the gene for granule bound starch synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the formation of amylose. The United States was the most productive country, with a nationwide average yield of 44.3 tonnes per hectare (19.8 short tons per acre). [105] Aloo posto (a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds) is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal. Meaning of solanum tuberosum. Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25[94] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. De Latijnse benaming Solanaceae zou staan voor 'troostrijke knol'. The Aloo gosht, Potato and meat curry, is one of the popular dishes in South Asia, especially in Pakistan. Pei writes, "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago. Solanum tuberosum 'Grimpantii' - Klimmende Aardappel Solanum tuberosum ‘Grimpantii’ – Klimmende Aardappel morningglory 1 maart 2018 Alles , Eenjarige planten , Plantencatalogus , S Stamppot, a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables. Tracing its origins to Quebec in the 1950s, it has become a widespread and popular dish throughout Canada. [12] Cooking at high temperatures—over 170 °C (338 °F)—partly destroys these compounds. Solanum tuberosum definition in English dictionary, Solanum tuberosum meaning, synonyms, see also 'solan',solum',solarium',solatium'. Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English. [26] The potato genome contains 12 chromosomes and 860 million base pairs, making it a medium-sized plant genome. Solanum tuberosum n. A taxonomic species within the family Solanaceae – potato. It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially northern and eastern Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. [115], Van Gogh's 1885 painting The Potato Eaters portrays a family eating potatoes. Illustration #85 in: Martin Cilenšek: Naše škodljive rastline, Celovec (1892) Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts, such as ears and eyes, to make a face. These compounds, which protect the potato plant from its predators, are generally concentrated in its leaves, flowers, sprouts, and fruits (in contrast to the tubers). Wound-response studies are often done on potato tuber tissue, as are electron transport experiments. Potatoes were first introduced outside the Andes four centuries ago, and it is estimated that by the year 2020 over two billion people will depend on it for food, feed, or income. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. [a][83], Under optimum conditions in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be stored for up to 10–12 months. A total of 36 unique pesticides were detected on potatoes over the 2,216 samples, though no individual sample contained more than 6 unique pesticide traces, and the average was 1.29 detectable unique pesticide traces per sample. This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating. Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato, "The Potato's Contribution to Population and Urbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment", "Potato production in 2018; Region/World/Production Quantity/Crops from pick lists", "Nutrient contents of potato, baked, flesh and skin, without salt per 100 grams", List of what counts towards 5 A DAY portions of fruit and vegetables, J-Agric-Food-Chem. andigena Cultivars on Escherichia coli and Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells In Vitro, GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION, STABILITY AND CO-HERITABILITY OF TUBER INTERNAL QUALITY TRAITS IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.) CULTIVARS IN ETHIOPIA, Effect of Physical, Chemical and Physiochemical Treatments of Surface Sterilisation on Medicinal Plants Salvadora persica and Solanum surattense for In-vitro Propagation. 'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado potato beetle; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', approved by US regulatory agencies during the 1990s, also include resistance to viruses. [79] Slightly older than creamer potatoes are "new potatoes", which are also prized for their taste and texture and often come from the same varieties. Global warming is predicted to have significant effects on global potato production. 2019;1864:203-223. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8778-8_15. These are often harvested by the home gardener or farmer by "grabbling", i.e. It presents a theme representative of the peasants' struggle for survival. The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. 1 potatoes are the highest quality and No. The Royal Spanish Academy says the Spanish word is a hybrid of the Taíno batata ('sweet potato') and the Quechua papa ('potato'). Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become more toxic. Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties. [42], Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most industrially useful. Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the North, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder. At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e., a spading fork, or a potato hook, which is similar to the graip but with tines at a 90° angle to the handle. After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. [11][12], The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain). The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas, a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum, and the plant itself is a perennial in the nightshade family, Solanaceae.. Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. dark = mother tuber Podzemljica. [113], The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. Potato grading for Idaho potatoes is performed in which No. [6] Over 99% of presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile.[9][10]. blemishes or bruises, pointy ends). Solanum tuberosum by Gaspard Bauhin (1591) oldest known European picture by Carolus Clusius (1583) Lower part of S. tuberosum plant. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. pulling out the young tubers by hand while leaving the plant in place. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. [69][70], New tubers may start growing at the surface of the soil. (The glycoalkaloid content was, in order from highest to lowest: flowers, sprouts, leaves, tuber skin, roots, berries, peel [skin plus outer cortex of tuber flesh], stems, and tuber flesh).[11]. Millet's technique for this work incorporated paste-like pigments thickly applied over a coarsely textured canvas. Potatoes are sensitive to heavy frosts, which damage them in the ground. Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage. In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favourite part of the diet; the first is a spicy curry of boiled potato, the second is a type of stuffed chapati. Different potato varieties contain different levels of glycoalkaloids. Other favourite dishes are alu tikki and pakoda items. Authors Myron A Bruce 1 2 , Jessica L Shoup Rupp 3 4 Affiliations 1 Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. Average potato yields in developed economies ranges between 38 and 44 tonnes per hectare. Each nutrient (every row) has the highest number highlighted to show the staple food with the greatest amount in a 100-gram raw portion. In 1845, a plant disease known as late blight, caused by the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans, spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland as well as parts of the Scottish Highlands, resulting in the crop failures that led to the Great Irish Famine. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. In western Norway, komle is popular. annual native to South America having underground stolons bearing edible starchy tubers; widely cultivated as a garden vegetable; vines are poisonous Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant (namely sprouts and skins) are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health. C raw hard red winter wheat In general, the tubers of varieties with white flowers have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins. Puddings made from grated potatoes (kugel, kugelis, and potato babka) are popular items of Ashkenazi, Lithuanian, and Belarusian cuisine. Approves Modified Potato. [29], Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources, although at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, naturally ranges from Peru into Texas, where it is used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes. In the third phase the tips of the stolons swell forming new tubers and the shoots continue to grow and flowers typically develop soon after. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2,216 samples was 1.602 ppm. A taxonomic genus within the family Solanaceae – the nightshades (sensu stricto); mostly poisonous, but including food plants such as tomato, potato and aubergine. 102579405: Uncharacterized protein; AP2/ERF domain-containing transcription factor (250 aa) Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Peru and Bolivia,[106] and is known in various countries of South America, including Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile. [112] High-density potatoes are desirable in the production of dehydrated mashed potatoes, potato crisps and french fries.[112]. There are close to 4,000 varieties of potato including common commercial varieties, each of which has specific agricultural or culinary attributes. List of sequenced plant genomes on Wikipedia. New Zealand farmers have demonstrated some of the best commercial yields in the world, ranging between 60 and 80 tonnes per hectare, some reporting yields of 88 tonnes potatoes per hectare. Dit bestand is gelicenseerd onder de Creative Commons-licenties Naamsvermelding-Gelijk delen 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Algemeen, 2.0 Algemeen en 1.0 Algemeen. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union. Bauernfrühstück (literally farmer's breakfast) is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs, ham and vegetables. Breeders try to keep glycoalkaloid levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). [5][6][7] The wild Crop Wild Relatives Prebreeding project encourages the use of wild relatives in breeding programs. [43] Amflora potatoes therefore produce starch consisting almost entirely of amylopectin, and are thus more useful for the starch industry. New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. [81], Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier, named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country. (Solanum komt van solanine de giftige stof die in de vrucht zit, niet in de knol). The Potato (Solanum tuberosum L., 1753) is an herbaceous plant reaching 60 to 150 cm of height (variable depending on the variety), belonging to the family of theSolanaceae.. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe[30][73] and the United States. China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively. For other uses, see, Plant species producing the tuber used as a staple food. E raw cassava In 2012, GMO development in Europe was stopped by BASF. Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal. Van Gogh said he wanted to depict peasants as they really were. — OregonLive.com, "Can you pass this forest ranger exam from 1925?," 16 Jan. 2018 Common dishes are: mashed potatoes, which are first boiled (usually peeled), and then mashed with milk or yogurt and butter; whole baked potatoes; boiled or steamed potatoes; French-fried potatoes or chips; cut into cubes and roasted; scalloped, diced, or sliced and fried (home fries); grated into small thin strips and fried (hash browns); grated and formed into dumplings, Rösti or potato pancakes. There are two triploid species (with 36 chromosomes): S. chaucha and S. juzepczukii. [15], The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil (or a hole) prior to the planting of potatoes. The fifth phase is the maturation of the tubers: the plant canopy dies back, the tuber skins harden, and the sugars in the tubers convert to starches. 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