TLEs have been captured by a variety of optical recording systems, with the total number of recent recorded events (early 2009) estimated at many tens-of-thousands. The jet was initially observed to be traveling up at around 50,000 m/s (110,000 mph; 180,000 km/h) at a speed similar to typical lightning, increased to 160,000 and 270,000 m/s (360,000–600,000 mph; 580,000–970,000 km/h), but then split in two and sped upward with speeds of at least 2,000,000 m/s (4,500,000 mph; 7,200,000 km/h) to the ionosphere where it then spread out in a bright burst of light. [15] "Blue starters appear to be blue jets that never quite make it," according to Dr. Victor P. Pasko, associate professor of electrical engineering.[16]. "Full report on the uncontrolled free fall of a stratospheric balloon payload provoked by a Sprite", Fractal Models of Blue Jets, Blue Starters Show Similarity, Differences to Red Sprites, "The Role of the Space Shuttle Videotapes in the Discovery of Sprites, Jets, and Elves", Fractal models of blue jets, blue starters show similarity, differences to red sprites, "Chinese Science Bulletin 2012, Vol. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. In contrast, other types of TLEs are not electrically connected with tropospheric lightning—despite being triggered by it. Because blue jets typically last almost a full second, one can easily see the jet rise from the clouds with a fast video camera. They are triggered by the discharges of positive lightning between the thundercloud and the ground. Their apparent speeds are in the range of 10 s to 100 s km/s. According to Sunanda Basu, a program director in NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences (which funded the research), the video is the first ground-based evidence of a direct electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower edge of the Earth's ionosphere. C-sprites (short for “columniform sprites”) is the name given to vertical columns of red light. They are less than 100 meters across. Upper-atmospheric lightning or ionospheric lightning are terms sometimes used by researchers to refer to a family of short-lived electrical-breakdown phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal lightning and storm clouds. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. A series of unusual, white luminous events atop the thunderstorm were observed over a 20-minute period, lasting for an average of 16 milliseconds each. Blue jet lightning - Wählen Sie dem Sieger der Tester. Unlike sprites, blue jets are, as the name implies, blue in color. [29] They were first observed in 2019 by professional storm chaser Pecos Hank. [24] From 35 miles, Holmes's video shows a blue streamer reach up from the top of a thunderstorm to the ionosphere, becoming red at the top. [11] They are also brighter than sprites and, as implied by their name, are blue in color. On July 22, 2002, five gigantic jets between 60 and 70 kilometres (35 and 45 mi) in length were observed over the South China Sea from Taiwan, reported in Nature. Their color is unknown as they have only been observed in black-and-white footage. They are not related to lightning.[27]. [30] No scientific journals exist on these phenomena yet due to their recent discovery, but they have been observed on footage. Other events, having essentially lower terminal altitudes (<26 km), are named blue starters. Sprites have been witnessed thousands of times. 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